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Choose two quotations from the text that stand out to you as important or interesting. Analyze them here (break them down, make connections to them, explain their meaning and significance). Then write a paragraph in which you respond to this question: What insight does Horton's essay give us into modern issues concerning the black community in DC?

Week 3: Horton by Krista FantinKrista Fantin, 12 Apr 2009 21:02

Even though DC was built by slaves, after the Civil War African Americans were highly populating the new capital and city. "The Civil War and its aftermath transformed Washignton from a small town into in city."

Even before the Civil War was over a lot of slaves were running away to DC to help contribute to the war because African Americans knew that they would be fighting for thier freedom. Linclon even treated the Confederate slaves different from the Union slaves. Linclon said, "Slaves escaping from states from stated at war with the Union would be considered 'contrabnad of the war' or captured property, and placed under the jurisdiction of the US Army. Fugivites slaves from loyal states, however, they were to be returned to their masters."

Some effects of the Reconstruction on Washington's black community is that a lot of famous African Americans and white abolishionists moved to DC to help support better lives for the ex-slaves. The more African Americans moved the more DC got populated with uneducated African Americans. " Drawn to the city by freedom and the protection of the federal governemnt, the vast majority of black mirgants were ex-slaves most illiterate and unskilled."

When the 14th Ammendment allowed African American males to vote a lot of probelms occured from this. Whites started riots and then started seperating themselves from blacks even on elections day at the polls. They feared that the blacks were then starting to have a voice in politics.

During Renconstruction a lot of aids were distruted among the blacks communiites. Schools were made, jobs were available but the empathy didn't last long because soon whites realized that Afircan Americans were getting rights because they were allowed to vote a lot of segregation stared to occur like whites started to leave the DC and blacks weren't allowed be in the same place as whites.

So African Americans thougth that slavery was over but with new policies it was like they were still in slavery and this era didn't stop until the late 1960's and early 1970's.

"The Civil War and its aftermath transformed Washington from a small town into a city". The black community in Washington DC was changing because of the population growth. As slaves were freed, the need for aid in black communities also increased. Because of the large amount of people who needed aid, abolitionists created a local branch of the, National Freedmen's Relief Association. After the war many freed slaves kept migrating to Washington DC, to "seek the federal government's protection".

Another attraction to Washington DC was because of political reasons. The black community in Washinton DC had hope for involvement with the government. For example John Mercer Langston became a memeber of the District Board of Health and a professor od dean at Howard University. Another example is the National Equal Rights League that introduced a bill in DC that gave blacks voting rights. "These opportunities and the desire to influence the process of change attracted many black leaders to the District".

Immediately after the Civil War the black population in Washington, DC increased.This had a positive affect on Reconstruction because Blacks were beginning to gain more rights. "In June 1866 a joint congressional committee presented the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, guranteeing all rights of citizenship-including the right to vote-to African American men." This shows the progress the Reconstrution was making. African American men were now given an opportunity not even white women had which is voting for government officials that make rules that governs us. This made them true American citizens.

Great summaries so far! I see a lot of implicit connections between the Civil War, emancipation, and Reconstruction and modern issues in DC such as gentrification, unequal housing and job opportunities, etc. It seems like this era is essential to understanding who lives in DC, how they got here, and why they do or do not have power/money/status.

For the rest of you, I get the feeling there will be a lot of people in the fishbowl tomorrow…

The effects of the Civil War was those of freedom and independence. The Union tried their best way possible to give freed slaves opportunites just as much as whites had in America. " Fugitive slaves, widows, orphans, the unemployed, the sick, and the destitute were cared for primaily within the black community through formal organizations and informal assistance networks." People in America tried strongly to show blacks free or not that they cared about them and anyone in America should have the opportunity to live the life as an American should.

Thank you for making the Cuellar situation a public affair, Marco.

Washington had a high percentage of African Americans and their number increased during the Civil War due to the immigration of African Americans to Washington from Maryland and Virginia. This immigration ended up overcrowding the city. Another group who immigrated to Washington were northern black leaders, with the purpose of aiding the African community. Philanthropists, teachers, and abolitionists also helped blacks in Washington. The Federal Bureau was also created during the Civil War. It aided African Americans meet their health, educational and any other need of blacks. To secure their health access the bureau created the Freedman’s Hospital and founded Howard University to give access to education to African Americans. With all this efforts and support to African Americans a culture to help African Americans was created in Washington. There was a group that worked for the development of black rights. After the 13th Amendment was passes African Americans were supported by different groups to exercise their right to vote and confronted Washington’s white population who refused to let blacks vote. The political power of African Americans in Washington was not just based on vote, but it also extended to taking positions in the local level of government.

The efforts in DC during the Civil War and later in the time of reconstruction to help blacks proved to be unsustainable. The withdrawal of federal troops and Freedmen’s Bureau activities contributed to the deterioration of the political power of African Americans. This loss meant deterioration in their educational, employment, and housing opportunities. Blacks started to live in the city’s alley dwellings and that led to segregation and inequality for them. Wendell Phillips argued that more than legal protection was necessary to end slavery. He said, only political rights, education, land ownership, and employment would enable freed people to become full citizens. The cause of the Civil War and the Emancipation had a positive effect of Washington’s black community because it empowered African Americans and their supporters to fight for black rights. It helped them gain hope, and their hope was supported by different groups for a short time in Washington. When that support disappeared black’s political power also started disappearing. African Americans “dream of complete freedom…remained a dream deferred.” The jubinilee period of the Civil War in washington for blacks was short because it ended as aid disappered.

The effects of the war and reconstruction on Washington's black community seem to be substantial. The text states that in 1862 many prominent figures moved to the city to help out. African-Americans such as Fredrick Douglass and Sojourner Truth came to the city to help take care of blacks and be spokespersons for them. Unfortunately the city became somewhat overcrowded with freed slaves that the government could not help everyone and disease spread such as smallpox. Also the ability to vote become a hot topic in the city after the war ended. Within the text its states that around 2,500 black men petitioned congress to vote. After much deliberation Congress allowed black men to vote. This all shows that politically, the Reconstruction era really helped blacks in Washington D.C. Horton says that in 1868 black men were elected into public offices such as aldermen and city council. He also adds that "By 1869 seven blacks had been elected to the city council, one for each of the city's wards." All though it took many years to get a black president we see that almost directly after the Civil War ended, many black men in D.C. began to hold positions in public office.

p.s. I will handle the Cuellar situation in the best way possible Ms. Fantin.

The Civil War sky rocketed the District of Columbia's black population. "Befored the war the District's population was about 14,000….30,000 ex-slaves had come to the city during the war." In Washington there were fugitive slaves, orpans, widows and more. The black communities took care of each other through aid programs and more. Once the slaves were emacipated by Lincoln it seemed like they became human and not just property.

But this newly found human realization was shattered by racial discrimination. Though black were gaining rights during the reconstruction of the union for example the 14th amendment which gave black males full citizenship. Whites did not look at blacks equally. When balck males were finally allowed to vote whites saw it to be an outrage, resulting in protests and more. Segregation was a major factor of this time. Blacks began to get educated, even black colleges began to rise. "By the beginning of the 20th century, Washington's black community constituated a seperate city within the newly modernized federal city."

Their communities were formed that way because blacks were not yet excepted by white America. Just some decades ago most of these same black people were en slaved now that they're free America during the reconstruction time they were not accepted in the american society which resulted in blacks creating their own society in washington dc

The effects of the Civil War and Reconstruction on Washington's black community was positive and negative. As many African Americans migrated to Washington DC, a need for education, medical, and employment increased. Many African Americans received helped from their own community and also from abolitionist. However this aid was very limited and caused the federal government to pass a bill that established the a Bureau of refugees, Freedmen and Abandon Lands. This aided both blacks and whites, which lead to the founding of Howard University, which positively effected blacks by opening education opportunities to many African Americans. The 14th amendment granted African American men the right it vote locally. This began "fulfilling black hopes for political power and confirming the fears of many longtime white Washington residents." These new opportunities also brought segregation which although assured them positions in the work force for blacks it negatively affected them by being excluded from hotels, restaurants, theater, and stores.

The effects of America's Civil War, and the time period of Reconstruction directly afterword had a crucial hand in the shaping and growth of the frail African-American communities throughout the expanse of the country; especially in Washington. In order to fully understand these two important events in Black history, we must first look to the Emancipation Proclamation, passed on September 22, 1862, which declared all slaves to be freed in all Confederate states. Since this was a measure of war, and not an actual attack which primary goal was to end slavery, slaves were not freed in border states such as Kentucky, Missouri, and West Virginia. Through the remainder of the war, slaves continuously fled north as the Union army marched south, staying in overflowing and poorly built settlements until issues could be resolved. By mid 1865, around 4 million slaves were freed. Still, the institution of slavery continued to exist until late 1865, when it was ended by the ratification of the 13th Amendment.

However, let us rewind back a few years. The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 required that all escaped slaves were to be returned to their masters. This, initially, did not happen, as some Union generals declared the freed slaves the "contraband of war." This assumption did not bode well with Lincoln, because it implied that the Union was recognizing the Confederacy as a separate country. Therefore, in 1862, the slave owners that were forced to give up their slaves in the petite capitol were compensated. While abolitionists were very pleased with Lincoln for finally freeing the dark-skinned Americans, there were many who opposed and resented him for this decision. Even some in the North balked at the idea of the slaves being set free, but for the most part there was little to no violence at this point in time. This major event at near the close of the Civil War set the stage for the changes in America that the era of Reconstruction heralded.

The purpose of Reconstruction was to restore the loyalty to the Union in the South; radical Republicans wanted to destroy all ties to Confederate nationalism. The two main areas it addressed was how the South was to regain self government, as well as seats in Congress, and also the position of the freedmen—the biggest was whether they should be given the right to vote. The violence begins here, but not instantly. There was radical growth in African-American participation in politics and government; from 1867 to 1871, there was progress made in getting Blacks near equal footing with whites under the law, but beginning in 1874, violent resistance ensued in Southern whites.

After Lincoln's assassination in April of 1865, Andrew Johnson moved up as president. As he sided with the conservative white democrats, he tried to end Reconstruction at the end of 1865, and issued many acts that contradicted legislate laws already in place. Congress and Johnson were at opposite ends when attempting to decide who was going to handle the continuation of Reconstruction, and how the citizenship and suffrage of both the ex-Confederates and Freedmen were going to be handled. Meanwhile, Blacks are terrorized and murdered by Southern white radicals that formed paramilitary organizations, like the White League, or intimidation groups like the KKK. As most of this was going in in the South, the northern capitol of DC was a glittering oasis in the heart of a parched desert for any Black, illiterate or educated.

The passing of the 14th and 15th amendments, won through complicated and extensive legislation, later on aided African-Americans in the expansion of job opportunities. With the change of a significant, adamantly-paying job, African-Americans were on the rise, and established a middle class.

However, as the Reconstruction period trickled to a close and the 1873 debt became more prevalent, the scare tactics (and flat out murder)towards the Blacks in order to keep them away from both political power and financial security caused the capitol of the country to split apart. The expansion of the Black communities in DC matched the moving out of the whites in the area, the segregation increasing quickly. In the early 19th century, there was a lapse in civil rights law, and there was no time wasted in barring Blacks from common white-owned businesses. The effects of the Civil War and Reconstruction were positive and negative; at the start, it gave Blacks a jump-start on equal living, but by the end, there was still a fine line between Black and White; whether it be by finances, land, education, or simple hatred.

After the Civil War was over the time period right after it was called The Reconstruction Period. This time period was very successful because African Americans got their freedom. Some opportunities were available to them like being able to buy land, get involve in politics and voting rights were amended. But reconstruction didn’t last long because later on down the road segregation were at its fullest; voting rights didn’t really mean anything until the Voting Rights Act was passed and KKK’s were created to keep reminding the African Americans that they would never be equal.

Reconstruction brought the south and the north together because the Civil War was over and the north got it’s wished of having slavery abolished. It didn’t last long because as soon as whites in the south realized that African Americans were being equal to them, they then made policies that would control African Americans.

Reconstruction was successful in its attempts to mend the country back together, barely. It was not successful however in bringing true justice and equality to the recently freed black people and even though in the post civil war era the black person gained a lot of freedoms, the South didn't want to feel disempowered. Many white politicians who had lost power after the civil war ended were overthrown by the blacks in congress but then afterwards, the whites gained that power back and started to persecute those blacks. Even though reconstruction brought the country back together in the long haul, racism flourished everywhere in the United States because mentalities of the whose who of superior was an everyday issue.

The Reconstruction was a sucessful moment in time. The Reconstruction was helpful to AA, because they were no longer treated as a white man's property They could work on their own terms and paid how much they want to. They got to vote,were able to slowly migrate pass the many obstacles that once held them back them from getting involved in politics, including "inexperience, illiteracy,[, and] economic vulnerability"

The Reconstruction period was suceessful for the time it lasted, however “it also left the country with deep-seeded political, economic, and social problems concerning race and freedom.” The period of Reconstruction was sucessful at providing former slaves with support that allowed them to gain political power and economic independence. “However when when we look past 1877 and into the century that followed Reconstruction, we see that many of these advances proved to be unsustainable.” This was mostly caused by the fact that ex-slaves still were behind in property ownership and because the support from government to ensure political power disappeared.

During the period of Reconstruction African Americans gained an increadible political power. A sinificant number of slaves were registered to vote and many of them held governmental office in the local level. At the same time Hiram R. Revelds represented Mississippi, becoming the first African American to serve in the US Congress. During the Reconstruction African Americans had high political influence. This was possible by the creation of a sense of community among themselves. Churches and school played a significant role in empowering Blacks to vote. This to institution served as a place for them to get together. This allowed to mobilize voter. The political influence of Blacks started to dissolve when Southerner re-entered the political arena as they felt threatened by the political power of African Americans. Since military presence disappeared in the South, people found ways to intimidate Blacks. Groups such as the KKK attacked church and other community leaders that supported Blacks. This contributed to the creation of a hostile political environment for Blacks that decreased their political power. Blacks political power was unprotected after the Reconstruction, which allowed for Southerners to disrupt the power they had gained.

Another success that became evident of the Reconstruction was the economic independence of Blacks. Blacks were able to negotiate with their employees about their labor hours, working conditions, and their paying. However African Americans were still behing in property ownership. They were unequal to whites in this aspect. Reconstruction helped African Americans gained independence but it failed “to equip [them] with the tools necessary to thrive in the economic climate of the post-war South.”

The successes of the Reconstruction of providing African Americans with political power and economic independence proved to be unsustainable and weak in the end. This was because after this period Blacks were unequiped to resist intimidation and to become equal to whites and the economic aspect. These two things were factors that pushed the manifestation of social problems in the century that followed the Reconstruction.

For the most part, to African Americans, Reconstrution was a success. They were given opportunities that they weren't given before. "African Americans were able to overcome "obstacles of inexperience,illiteracy, economic vulnerability, and widespread harassment' and rise to important positions within their local and state governments." This shows a success because now that African Americans were declareded to be free they had an opportunity to start their life over. With the help of organizations and their own communities, they were now able to own their own land, ask for their own income, get an education for their children, and start their own church. Overall, the Reconstruction was an success to African Americans.

Although it was an success to African Americans, some Whites were determine to prevent them from gaining any power during the Reconstruction after the Civil War. They developed groups such as the Ku Klux Klan and the the White League. Their mission was to destroy any hopes of the African Americans. This was shown through violent actions or even as simple as discouraging blacks to vote. They made it extremly hard for the African Americans to make the Reconstruction a success.

Choose two interesting ideas or quotes from the text and analyze them here. By "analyze" I mean break them down, explain their meaning, make connections between the ideas/quotes and other material, and state their significance.

For this text, also describe what you notice about the structure of the writing. What steps did the author go through to write this paper? How is it organized? What is the thesis? Does the author prove the thesis by the end of the essay? How is evidence from outside sources incorporated into the paper? Is this effective? Why or why not?

Week 2 (Fantin) by Krista FantinKrista Fantin, 07 Apr 2009 02:55

Reconstruction was successful for a short period of time for blacks to get up on their feet and then it crashed. Blacks during Reconstruction were leaning how to read and write, owning their land, and sending their childen to school. Whites didn't like the political culture that was being shown because blacks did the most voting for Republicans which sort of had the same morals as they did. Blacks also negotiated with used to be "slave masters" for better woking conditions for themselves which meant not working long hours and less labor that was too over bearing. So whites decided to turn the situation around and scae blacks fom voting polls and legislation to restore back the power they used to have when owning slaves. The whites created groups like the KKK and The White League to get blacks to fall back by burning down schools and churches and threatening them. Eventually the whites restored order once again but the blacks still thought during the period of Reconstruction the power of the South was theirs.

The reconstruction was successful to a certain extent, this is because once federal troops were removed from the south the power that African Americans had gained was diminished. After the recontruciton African Americans began to claim rights that were rightfully theirs, many thought that their exslave masters owed them money for all the work they had done. Many also felt that land redistribution would give them land that they had worked on because they believed that "land be longed to those who cultivated." Soon many African Americans found thier way into political power from having important positions in the state and local government. However with out the presence of federal troops white southerner returned to political power and found ways to hinder African Americans. White southerns used gerrymanderning, poll taxes, and complicated voter registration laws in order to discourage Arfican Americans from voting. African Americans then found it hard to regain political power. Segregation was then born in the south that lead to lasting problematical effects then successful ones.

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